In 1908, a deadly race riot rocked the city of Springfield, and an eruption of anti-black violence – particularly lynching – was horrifically commonplace. Still, the Springfield riot was the final tipping point that led to the creation of the NAACP. Appalled at this rampant violence, a group of white liberals, including Mary White Ovington and Oswald Garrison Villard (the descendants of famous abolitionists), William English Walling, and Dr. Henry Moscowitz issued a call for a meeting to discuss racial justice. Some 60 people, seven of whom were African American (including W. E. B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells-Barnett, and Mary Church Terrell), signed the call, which was released on the centennial of Lincoln’s birth.